China and Vietnam: the transition from “official” to “real” unionism


1 May 2018


Volume 1 – Number 9

How to cite

Isidor Boix and Fernando Rocha



The Chinese and Vietnamese trade unions are facing a transition phase within a context of implementation of the market economy in both countries and its integration into the global world economy. Processes of industrial action are already taken place, exceeding the “official” political and union structures, with a great uncertainty about their future developments and outcomes. This article addresses a critical view of this phenomenon, based on the experience of union cooperation between European unions and the unions of both countries and on the findings from specific research developed in Vietnam.


Informal work, Poverty, Economic development, new systems of protest, Subsistence techniques, Human rights, Worker rights.