This work of transnational history is based on the results of the research project www.nomesevoces.net and presents the consequences that the process of political persecution and annihilation unleashed by the perpetrators of the 1936 coup against the Spanish Republic had to citizens of Portuguese origin who were resident in Galicia and the forms it has taken. The identification of this group and the discovery of its importance in such a repressive context allow a new approach to its presence as a migratory movement, to their degree of social and labor integration and also to advance in the characterization of persecutions by the Spanish golpistas in 1936. The Portuguese participation as victims is hardly indicated and even less documented and analyzed – a virtually unknown subject as a collective phenomenon and yet very significant permitting to pose several questions in an essay of transnational history: why was this an unknown issue in memory and in history until it was discovered by an in-depth investigation of the whole process? Does the invisibility of this group reflect its integration or a deliberate concealment? This persecution was suffered by them as Portuguese or as citizens or inhabitants of the Spanish territory?